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A chemical property of an element that measures the likelihood that the element will attract and donate an electron to another atom to form a negative ion. The value is usually expressed in kJ/mol. The more positive the value is, the greater the tendency of the atom to lose an electron, and vice versa. This is also known as ionization energy, and it is distinct from electron affinity, which describes the change in energy that an atom absorbs or gives off when it gains or loses an electron to form an ion.
Actinium is a silver-white radioactive metal with the chemical symbol Ac and atomic number 89. It is the namesake of the actinide series, a group of 15 elements similar to it located between polonium and lawrencium in the periodic table. It was discovered by Andre-Louis Debierne in 1899 and first isolated by Friedrich Oskar Giesel in 1902.
When it comes to the atomic structure of an element, there are three things that we must consider: the atomic number, the neutron number, and the electron number. The atomic number represents the number of protons in the atom, while the neutron number refers to the number of neutrons found in the nucleus. The electron number is the number of electrons in an atom, and it determines the properties of the element and its compounds.
Electrons are the permanent core particles of an atom that occupy specific orbitals around the nucleus and provide each element with its characteristic properties. In addition, the electrons give the atom a negative electric charge that is measured in coulombs. In 1912, physicist J. J. Thomson discovered the existence of electrons through cathode ray examination. The mass of an electron is very small (about 1/1836 the mass of a proton), and it is the smallest member of the constituent particles that make up the nucleus.