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There is a wide range of charge states associated with tungsten. These range from W39+ to W56+. The highest charge states are limited by the sequence of ionization potentials. In particular, the nuclear charge Z is affected by the rate of ionization.
A statistical model has been developed to describe collisional-radiative processes with tungsten impurity ions in plasmas. This model has been validated against experimental data.
It is possible to model the electron structure of tungsten multielectron ions in terms of the Thomas-Fermi model of collective oscillations of atomic electron density. However, this approach requires a more complicated interpretation of the charge states produced by the ionization process.
The average charge of tungsten ions is found to be strongly dependent on the ionisation energy and the electron temperature. Similarly, the tungsten rotation velocity is complex. Sharp density gradients can complicate the measurement of this parameter. Consequently, a variety of cyclic voltammetry and pseudocapacitive charging experiments were conducted to examine the behavior of the tungsten charge state.
The majority of tungsten power comes from higher frequencies than visible light. The flat crystal spectrograph has the potential to observe a small section of the survey spectrum. As a result, the contribution of QED to the transition energy can be determined.
Plasmas with tungsten impurity contain a wide range of charge states. Typically, tungsten is ionized to a W39+ or W56+ charge state. These tungsten ions have open n=3 shells. They emit strong lines from n=3-2 transitions.