Properties of Copper Nanoparticles

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properties of copper nanoparticles

Copper is an essential trace element which plays a critical role in the human body and is necessary for several metabolic processes. However, it can cause toxicity when its intake exceeds the tolerable level. This is why biomedical applications of these nanoparticles are restricted in the laboratory and clinical studies need to be carried out on the safe use of copper-based products in human tissues and devices.

Toxicity mechanism of CuO NPs is related to oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, which leads to DNA damage, membrane perturbation and apoptosis in cells. Cell damage can also occur when these particles enter the mitochondria, where they trigger a cascade of events including generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), membrane disruption and damage to enzymes involved in the production of energy and protein synthesis.

The synthesis of these nanoparticles is an important research topic which has received a lot of attention in recent years. Various synthesis approaches like chemical, physical and biological methods are used for the synthesis of these particles.

Synthesis of these particles is a challenging task, as they undergo rapid oxidation in air or aqueous media. Therefore, stability is a major issue in their synthesis.

Green synthesis and green protocols are currently being developed to reduce the toxicity of these nanoparticles by changing parameters such as particle size, surface characteristics and regulating the release of Cu2+.

Moreover, their antimicrobial effect has been demonstrated against a variety of bacteria and is promising for future uses as a nanoformulation. They can be used as a disinfectant for medical devices and surfaces, wound dressings, textiles and even human skin and tissue. They have also been shown to be effective in curing a variety of diseases such as bovine mastitis.