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Lithium sulfate (Li2SO4) is one of the acid soluble Lithium sources. This substance has been used as a catalyst in organic chemistry synthesis. However, the solubility of Li2SO4 is relatively moderate. In contrast, the solubility of other lithium salts is much higher.
The solubility of a substance depends on several factors. These include the temperature and pressure of the solution, the pH and the solute properties. It also depends on the properties of the solvent.
Solubility of lithium sulfate decreases as the temperature increases. As a result, a higher concentration of the liquid is required to dissolve the solid. For example, at 20 degC, the solubility of lithium sulfate is 34.8 g/100 ml of water.
Solubility of sulfate compounds is determined by the ions’ size and the strength of electrostatic attraction. Generally, larger cations are more soluble.
The cations’ strength of electrostatic attraction is proportional to their charge and inversely proportional to the distance between ions. Consequently, the more a cation is soluble, the less its distance to other ions is. Hence, the more soluble the lithium sulfate is, the lower its atomic charge.
Although the solubility of lithium sulfate varies with temperature, the optimum value is given in tabular form. This is in accordance with the IUPAC recommendations.
The solubility of lithium sulfate monohydrate is slightly better than that of lithium carbonate. At 25 degC, the solubility of the latter is between 255 and 349 g/L.
Lithium sulfate has a relative density of 2.21. Moreover, its solubility is very good in water.