The boron-carbidide crystal exhibits a rhombohedral pattern. Its crystal lattice belonged to the D3d5R3m spatial structure. You can describe the rhombohedral design as a cubic primitive cell structure that extends diagonally through the space and forms an irregular icosahedron in each corner. The c-axis is the hexagonal sign. It runs parallel to the diagonal. A linear chain is formed when three boronatoms join the adjacent icosahedron. Thus, each unit cell is composed of 12 icosahedral positions. Three positions can be found on the linear-chain. Consider the B-atom as due to its position in the icosahedron, and the C-atom as being in the linear chain. Then the stoichiometry for B12C3 would be B4C.
1. Basic properties and potential uses of Boron Carbide
B4C’s density is 2.52g/cm3. An empirical formula (9) can show the relation between density and carbon in homogeneous zones. It is as follows:
The low density of Boron Carbide makes it difficult to achieve the same performance as the high density. This is why lightweight armor can be used to lower the tank and car body weights. Conserve energy.
(2) Hardness and wear resistance
B4C exhibits high wear resistance and super toughness. With an increase in C content, B4C’s Vickers hardness increases within the homogeneous region. If the carbon contents are 10.6% and 20% respectively, then the hardness can rise to 29.1 GPa. However, hardness 21 may reach 37.7 GPa when carbon content exceeds 20%. At high temperatures, it is very hard (>30GPa). An empirical formula (10 ):
) can show the temperature-dependent change in hardness.
In formula H0: The hardness at roomtemperature;
T— is the temperature.
A—is a constant related with carbon.
This recipe is good for 20 to 1750. B4C is the second-hardest material in the world after diamond and cubic BN.
B4C has a higher wear resistance as the temperature increases. Between 20 and 1400, friction coefficients decrease with increasing temperature. They drop to 0.01 at around 1400. The friction rate is also continuing to fall. B4C was used to sandblast nozzles due to its exceptional hardness, and high friction characteristics.
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